Politics and Institutions

Politics and Institutions

Institutions have been an enduring concern of Politics and Political Scientists since ancient times, but recently theorists have attacked Institutional questions with renewed vigour and creativity in the name of “new institutionalism”. The Institutionalists agree on these points;

Institutions shape politics

Institutions are shaped by history.

And the third factor is the “practical performance of institutions”. It is believed that, “Institutions are devices for achieving purposes, not just for achieving agreement”. But, how institutional performance is measured? Institutional performance of any country rests on the following factors;

Societal demands

political interaction

Government

Policy choice

Implementation.

Studying Institutional Performance:

In order to understand institutional performance three school of thoughts are studied for understanding the dynamics of Institutional Performance;

Emphasize on Institutional design

Emphasize on Socioeconomic factors

Emphasize on Sociocultural factors

Upon these factors, the foundation of any institution rests.

Explaining Institutional Performance:

In order to study the level of Institutional performance two plausible factors are evaluated;

Socioeconomic Modernity, which is the result of industrial revolution.

Civic Community, that is the patterns of civic involvement and social solidarity.

Socioeconomic Modernity:

Industrial Revolution and its aftermath had played an important role in the social and economic development of Western Societies. Vast population moved from land to factory, standards of living has been increased, class structures were transformed, level of education and standards of public health rose. Effective democracy is correlated with Socioeconomic modernization.

Wealth eases burdens of both public and privative life. Education helps in the expansion of trained professionals as well as sophisticated citizens. Economic growth expands the middle class, which is considered as the “bulwark of stable and effective democracy”. Thus, economic Modernity is associated with high performance of public institutions.

The Civic Community:

Nicole Machiavelli said that “whether free institutions succeeded or failed  on the character of the citizens, or their civic virtue.” The success of democratic government depends on the degree to which its surroundings approximate the ideal of a civic community. The civic community is determined by the following factors;

Civic Engagement

Political Equality

Solidarity, Trust and Tolerance

Associations -Social Structures of Cooperation

The Civic Community-Testing the Theory:

One standard to measure the political participation is “Electoral Turnout”. Turnout in general elections is marred as a measure of civic involvement due to following reasons

Party organizations strongly influence elections. Strong Party affiliations in any community effects the turnout of elections.

In many communities, where patron-client networks are dominant voting in general elections is usually based on personal patronage benefits rather than the “civic sense”.

Social and political life in the civic community:

Life in a civic community is in many respects fundamentally distinctive. Civic-ness in social and political settings can be understood by the surveys on regional politicians, community leaders and the mass public.

Citizens in the less civic regions report much more frequent contact with their representatives, primarily involving personal matters. These encounters involve request for job and patronage. Political leaders in civic regions are more enthusiastic supporters of political equality than their counterparts in less civic regions.

Political leaders in civic regions are more readier to compromise than the less civic regions.

Politics in less civic relations is mainly based on authority and dependency. Leaders in the less civic regions have been more sceptical. The regional differences in authority patterns have had a powerful and enduring impact on popular attitudes toward the very structure of any country’s government.

Civics is about equality as well engagement. The effectiveness of regional government is closely tied to the degree to which authority and social interchange in the life of the region is organized either authoritatively or on cooperation.

Equality is the essential feature of the civic community.How to Earn money online by just watching videos WorldwideHow to Earn money online by just watching videos Worldwide

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